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Glossary ECH - EMA

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Echinoderms (meaning: "spiny skin") are a phylum of salt-water animals Emawhose living members have five arms or rays (or multiples of five). They are mostly bottom-dwellers. These invertebrates include: starfish (sea stars), sea urchins, sand dollars, crinoids, sea squirts, sea cucumbers, etc.

(pronounced ee-KINE-oh-don) Echinodon (meaning: "spiny tooth") was a small, early, bipedal, plant-eating dinosaur from the late Jurassic Period, about 145 million years ago. This poorly-known ornithischian was about 2 ft (60 cm) long. It is known from a very incomplete fossil found in Dorset, England. Echinodon was named by Owen in 1861. The type species is E. becklessi. Its classification is uncertain.

The study of the inter-relationships between organisms and their natural environment.

A biological community and the physical environment associated with it. Organisms within the community can be classified on the basis of their position in the food-chain.

also called Poikilothermy, Ectothermy, or Heterothermy, the state of having a variable body temperature that is usually only slightly higher than the environmental temperature. This state distinguishes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrate animals from warm-blooded, or homoiothermic, animals (birds and mammals). Because of their dependence upon environmental warmth for metabolic functioning, the distribution of terrestrial cold-blooded animals is limited, with only a few exceptions, to areas with a temperature range of 5–10° to 35–40° C (41–50° to 95–104° F). For cold-blooded animals living in the arctic seas, temperatures may range from below 0° C to 10–15° C (below 32° F to 50–59° F). Poikilotherms do maintain a limited control over internal temperature by behavioral means, such as basking in sunlight to warm their bodies.

(pronounced ah-DAFF-oh-SAWR-us) Edaphosaurus (meaning: "pavement lizard" - Cope's term for its tooth plates) was an herbivore early synapsid that lived during the late Carboniferous and early Permian period, about 320 to 258 million years ago, long before the dinosaurs existed. This pelycosaur (early synapsids) was related to Dimetrodon and had long spines growing out of its backbone. These spines had distinctive crossbars on them and may have been covered by skin, forming a thermoregulatory sail. This quadruped was about 11 feet (3.2 m) long and weighed about 660 pounds (300 kg), had a small head, large eyes, a barrel-shaped body, and a long tail. It lived in wet areas (in swamps and near lakes) and ate rough plant material that it could crush with its flat teeth. Its fossils have been found in Europe and North America.

Edentulous means toothless.

Ediacaran fauna is the animal life that lived during the Vendian or Ediacaran period (roughly 650 to 544 million years ago). The Ediacaran period was named for the Ediacara Hills in South Australia (the word Ediacaran is of Australian Aboriginal origin and means a place where there is water). The Vendian is when the earliest-known animals evolved. Vendian biota (Ediacaran fauna), included soft-bodied multi-cellular animals, like sponges, cnidarians, worms, and soft-bodied relatives of the arthropods. The Ediacara was named for the Ediacara Hills in Australia, north of Adelaide, where these early animal fossils were first found (in 1946, by the Australian mining geologist Reginald C. Sprigg). Other Vendian Period fossils have been found in Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, and the White Sea off the northern coast of Russia.

(pronounced ed-MARK-ah) Edmarka (named to honor Wm. Edmark) was a large meat-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period. This theropod was about 36 ft (11 m) long and lived in what is now Wyoming, USA; only a few bones have been found. It was named by paleontologists Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth, and Filla in 1992. The type species is E. rex. Edmarka may be the same as Torvosaurus.

(pronounced ed-mon-TONE-ee-ah) Edmontonia (meaning: "from Edmonton") was an Ankylosaur, a heavily armored herbivore (plant-eater) that was 20 - 23 ft (6 - 7 m) long. It was covered with bony plates and spikes, and had a wide, flat skull. The teeth were small and the jaws were weak. The legs were thick and the feet were very wide. It was a late Cretaceous (76-68 million years ago) ornithischian dinosaur whose fossils were originally found in 1924 in Alberta, Canada (the fossils were unEarthed in the Red Deer River valley about 11 kilometers (7 miles) west of the town of Morrin, near the Edmonton rock formation, hence its name) by George Paterson. Edmontonia fossils have been found in Canada (Alberta) and the USA (Montana, S. Dakota, and Texas). Edmontonia was named by the fossil hunter C. M. Sternberg in 1928. The type species is E. longiceps.

This huge herbivore lived from the middle to the end of the Cretaceous period. It had four legs but frequently reared up on its back legs for feeding, and looked like a smaller version of Anatotitan to which it was closely related. It had a duck-like bill and was able to chew food using its numerous back teeth. It could grow up to approximately 13 metres long and could weigh up to three and a half tonnes.

(pronounced ee-FRAYS-ee-ah) Efraasia (named after its discover, Eberhard Fraas) was a sauropodomorph (a primitive plant-eating dinosaur from the late Triassic Period in what is now Germany. It was 8 ft = 2.5 m long). Efraasia is actually a juvenile specimen of the genus Sellosaurus.

(pronounced eye-nee-oh-SAWR-us) Einiosaurus (meaning: "bison lizard") was a quadrupedal (walked on four legs), plant-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous Period, about 71 million years ago. This ceratopsian was roughly 20 feet (6 m) long. It had a large nose horn and a frill. Three skulls and a few bones were found in 1970 in Montana, USA. Einiosaurus was named by paleontologist Sampson in 1995. The type species is E. procurvicornis.

(pronounced EL-ah-fro-SAWR-us) Elaphrosaurus (meaning: "light lizard") was a fast, bipedal (walked on two legs), meat-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period, about 155 million years ago. It was about 17 feet (5 m) long and had short, thin arms with 3-fingered hands, strong, long-shinned legs, 3-toed feet, a long thin neck and a stiff tail. It may have been an ornithomimid ("bird-mimic") dinosaur, the family of fast-moving theropods. Its fossils have been found in Tanzania, East Africa.

(pronounced eh-LAZZ-mo-SAWR-us) Elasmosaurus (meaning: "plate lizard") was a huge, long-necked, Cretaceous marine reptile - a plesiosaur, not a dinosaur.

(pronounced ee-LAS-mo-THEER-ee-um) Elasmotherium (meaning: "plate monster") was an ancient plant-eating mammal that lived during the Pleistocene. This heavily-built quadruped walked on four short, stocky hoofed legs. It had a huge horn on its forehead; the horn may have been up to 6.5 ft (2 m) long (fossils of the horn have not been found). Elasmotherium was bigger than an elephant; it was 16-26 ft (5-8 m) long and it weighed roughly 3.5 to 4.5 tons (3-4 tonnes). The teeth were tall-crowned and were covered with cement and wrinkled enamel. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia; this giant lived and grazed on the Eurasian steppes. Elasmotherium sibricus was named by Johannes Fridericus Brandt in 1878. Classification: Class Mammalia (mammal), Order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates), Suborder Ceratomorpha (tapirs, rhinos), Family Rhinocerotidae (Elasmotherium, Teleoceras, Trigonias, Coelodonta), Genus Elasmotherium.

(pronounced ELM-ee-SAWR-us)Elmisaurus (meaning: "foot lizard") was a bipedal (walked on two legs), meat-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous Period, about 80-70 million years ago. This theropod is only known from fossilized hands and feet; the bird-like feet had 3 long toes (with some fused metatarsals) and a dewclaw. Elmisaurus may have been roughly 6.5 feet (2 m) long. It was found in 1970 in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. It was named by paleontologist Osmólska in 1981. The type species is E. rarus.

(pronounced ee-LOP-ter-iks) Elopteryx ("marsh wing") was a theropod dinosaur (a bipedal meat-eater) from the late Cretaceous Period, about 73-65 million years ago. It may be a Troodontid. A femur (thigh bone) and few fossil fragments were found in Romania. It was named by paleontolgist Andrews in 1913. The type species is E. nopscai, but this is a dubious genus and species (and may be the same as Bradycneme).

(pronounced el-vuh-SAWR-us) Elvisaurus (meaning: "Elvis [Presley] lizard") is a an informal name for Cryolophosaurus. It was called Elvisaurus due to its crest's likeness to Elvis Presley's hairdo. It was a bipedal meat-eating dinosaur about 20 feet (6 m) long. It had a horn-like, upward pointing, Elvis-style crest above its eyes. Elvisaurus lived in what is now Antarctica during the early Jurassic Period, roughly 190 million years ago. It is the only theropod known from the Antarctic, and the first Antarctic dinosaur ever described. It is known from a partial skull, jaws, femur (thigh bone), pelvis (hip), vertebrae, fibula (calf bone), tibiotarsus (ankle bone), and metatarsals (foot bones).

(pronounced EE-mau-SAWR-us) Emausaurus (meaning: "Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität (University) lizard") was a plant-eating dinosaur from the early Jurassic Period, about 194-188 million years ago. This 6.5 ft (2 m) long ornithischian was a primitive quadruped with cone-shaped and flat armor. It had a wide, flat head with a long snout; it had five teeth on each side of the jaw's front. A skull and some other fossilized bones were found in northern Germany. It may be a thyreophoran or a primitive stegosaur. Echinodon was named by paleontologist Haubold in 1990. The type species is E. rnsti.