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Glossary F

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(pronounced FAB-roh-SAWR-us) Fabrosaurus is only known from an incomplete lower jaw found in Lesotho, South Africa in 1964 by Leonard Ginsburg. Fabrosaurus is very similar to and perhaps the same as Lesothosaurus, and was a very early ornithopod, a small, fast, bipedal plant eater. It lived during the early Jurassic Period, about 208-194 million years ago. Fabrosaurus is a dubious genus.

In classification, a family is a group of related or similar organisms. A family contains one or more genera (plural of genus). A group of similar families forms an order.

The femur is the thigh bone - the long bone in the upper part of the leg between the hip and the knee.

A fenestra is a natural hole or opening in a bone. The skull has many fenestra.

(pronounced fen-EST-roh-SAWR-us) Fenestrosaurus (meaning: "window lizard") is an invalid name for Oviraptor. Fenestrosaurus was named by paleontologist H. Osborn in 1924. It was a theropod dinosaur with a parrot-like head, toothless beak, long fingers, and long legs.

This is the name for a group of low growing woody plants that appeared during the Devonian period, approximately 400 million years ago. Requiring water as part of their reproductive cycle they have diversified greatly since then and are a successful plant group today.

Cold-blooded, gill-breathing, aquatic vertebrates possessing jaws and fins. Living fishes can be divided into two major groups: cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and bony fish (ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish). Both groups first appeared in the Early Devonian period. An advanced group of the ray-finned fish, called teleost fish, evolved during the Jurassic to become the most abundant fishes today. There are also several extinct classes of fish.

The fibula is the calf bone - the bone in the lower, back part of the leg between the knee and the ankle.

A flexor muscle which closes a joint. (Compare with a extensor muscle, its opposite)

(pronounced TER-o-SAWR) Pterosaurs (meaning: "winged lizard") were flying, prehistoric reptiles. They were not dinosaurs, but were closely related to them. Pterosaurs were named by Kaup in 1834.

Many fossilized dinosaur footprints have been found. They can indicate the animal's speed, weight, and herding behavior. Determining which animal made the tracks can be difficult.

Forelimbs are the front legs of an animal.

The remains of an animal or plant preserved in rock. Usually the soft parts, such as muscles or skin, decay completely before they can be preserved. This leaves only the more resistant parts, such as bone or shell. These were then replaced by minerals that seeped in from the surrounding sediment. Many fossils are also crushed flat by the weight of overlying rock.

Petroleum (oil), natural gas and coal are fossil fuels, organic materials that are high in energy. Fossils fuels are formed in a process that takes millions of years. The organic material (dead plants and animals) is covered by layers of sediment, then heat, pressure, and bacterial action change the material into pools of oil and gas (or are compressed as coal).

Sharks have existed for over 350 million years. They evolved over 100 million years before the dinosaurs did. This was long before people evolved. Most fossil evidence of early sharks is from fossilized teeth and a few skin impressions. Cladodonts, primitive sharks, had double-pointed teeth, were up to 3 feet (1 m) long fish-eaters and lived about 400 million years ago (MYA). The earliest-known primtitive shark remains are fossil "scales" that date from about 420 million years ago, during the early Silurian. The earliest shark genera are Mongolepis, Polymerolepis, and Palaeospondylus.

William Parker Foulke was a US scientist who found the first American dinosaur skeleton, Hadrosaurus, a duck-billed dinosaur. The fossilized bones were found by workmen in a Cretaceous marl (a crumbly type of soil) pit on the John E. Hopkins farm in Haddonfield, New Jersey beginning in 1838. Foulke heard of the discovery and recognized its importance. The dinosaur was excavated and named in 1858 by US anatomist Joseph Leidy who named it Hadrosaurus foulkii (meaning: "Foulke's big lizard").

(pronounced fren-GWEL-eh-SAWR-us) Frenguellisaurus (meaning: "[Joaquin] Frenguelli's lizard") may be the same as Herresaurus. It was a late Triassic dinosaur that lived about 231-225 million years ago. It was a very early, primitive dinosaur; its classification is unsure. It was a speedy bipedal carnivore about 10-13 feet (3-4 m) long, weighing perhaps up to 780 pounds (350 kg). It had 3 large canine teeth in the upper jaw and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. It had a short neck, a large head, a long, pointed tail. Its arms were shorter than its legs. It is known from 3 partial fossilized skeletons found in northwestern Argentina, South America. It was named by paleontologist Novas in 1986. The type species is F. ischigualastensis

A frill is a sheet of bone on the heads of ceratopsian dinosaurs, like Protoceratops and Triceratops.

Chlamydosaurus (meaning: "caped lizard") is a rare, modern-day frilled lizard (not a dinosaur) native to New Guinea and North Australia. Its frill is 7 - 14 inch (18-34 cm) flap of skin that completely circles its head. It opens this brightly-colored frill to frighten enemies. Adults are over 8 inches (20 cm) long. These climbing lizards live in trees in humid forests and eat cicadas, ants, spiders and smaller lizards. It can run quadrupedally and bipedally, with the front legs off the ground. Adult females lay 8 to 14 eggs per clutch in Spring and Summer. Classification: Class Reptilia, Order: Squamata, Family: Agamidae, Genus Chlamydosaurus, Species kingii (named by Gray in 1825).

Frogs are amphibians and the first primitive frogs evolved during the Early Triassic period. The first modern frogs with jumping motion appeared during the Jurassic period. Feeding on insects and other invertebrates they are restricted to aquatic habitats.

(pronounced FULL-gur-oh-THEER-ee-um ) Fulgurotherium (meaning: "lightning beast") is a dubious genus. It was an ornithischian dinosaur and an ornithopod. This plant-eater was about 6.5 feet (2 m) long. It dates from the early Cretaceous Period. A very incomplete fossil was found in Australia. Fulgurotherium was named by paleontologist von Huene in 1932. The type species is F. australe.

This group includes yeast, mould, mushrooms and mildews. They lack chlorophyll and the organised plant structure of stems roots and leaves. Evidence for their existence dates to approximately 420 million years ago, but palaeontologists argue that they may have been around earlier.

The furcula is the "wishbone" of birds.

(pronounced fu-TAHB-ah-SAWR-us) Futabasaurus (meaning: "Futaba [Group] lizard") was a theropod dinosaur and a tyrannosaurid. This bipedal meat-eater had a large head, long legs, short arms and a stiff pointed tail. It dates from the late Cretaceous Period. Fossils were found in Japan. Futabasaurus was named by paleontologist Lambert in 1990.