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Glossary GAL - GER

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The Gallic epoch was the middle part of the Cretaceous Period, about 127 million to 89 million years ago.

(pronounced gal-uh-MIME-mus) Gallimimus (meaning: "rooster mimic") was an ostrich-like dinosaur about 17 feet long. This lightly-built, fast-running theropod was a long-beaked omnivore (eating plants and animals) from the late Cretaceous Period, about 75-70 million years ago. Gallimimus was found in the Gobi desert in the early 1970's. It was named by paleontologists R. Barsbold, H. Osmólska, and E. Roniewicz in 1972.

Peter M. Galton is a British paleontologist working in the USA. He named: Aliwalia (1985), Blikanasaurus (with J. van Heerden, 1985), Bugenasaura (1995), Callovosaurus (1980), Camelotia (1985), Dracopelta (1980), Gravitholus (with W. P. Wall, 1979), Lesothosaurus (1978), Ornatotholus (with H. Sues,1983), Othnielia, (1977), Stygimoloch (with H. Sues,1983), Torvosaurus (with J.A. Jensen, 1979), Valdosaurus (1977), Yaverlandia (1971), and Ruehleia (2001). He named the dinosaur families: Blikanasauridae (with J. van Heerden, 1985), Fabrosauridae (1972), and Staurikosauridae (1977). He named the order Herrerasauria (1985). H3 also championed the cladistic theory that birds are modern-day dinosaurs (with R. Bakker, 1974), showed that Hypsilophodon was not arboreal (did not live in trees), that hadrosaurs did not drag their tails but used the tail as a counterbalance for the head, and that the Pachycephalosaurs butted heads like rams.

A ganglion is a mass of nerve tissue outside the central nervous system (in any animal). Some of the larger dinosaurs (some sauropods and Stegosaurus) may have had a ganglion at the base of the tail.

(pronounced ccc-oh-SAWR-us) Gargoyleosaurus (meaning: "gargoyle lizard") was an armored dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period, about 154 to 144 million years ago. A plant-eater, it walked on four short legs and was about 10 feet (3 m) long (it had no tail club). Its body armor consisted of thin-walled cones plus two shoulder spines. Gargoyleosaurus was found in the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, USA. This primitive ankylosaurid ornithopod had a wide, triangular skull that resembles a gargoyle (hence its name). Gargoyleosaurus was named by paleontologists Carpenter, Miles, and Cloward in 1998. The type species is G. parkpini. Gargoyleosaurus may be the same as Mymoorapelta.

(pronounced ga-ROOD-uh-MIME-us) Garudimimus (meaning: "Garuda [a monstrous bird from Asian myths] mimic") was a theropod dinosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous Period, about 89-83 million years ago. This bipedal meat-eater was about 12-13 feet (3.5-4 m) long and may have weighed roughly 185 pounds (85 kg). This bird-like dinosaur had short arms, long legs, a stiff, pointed tail and sharp teeth - a small crest near its eyes distinguishes it from other ornithomimoids. A skull and some other bones were found in Mongolia. It was named by paleontologists Barsbold in 1981; the type species is G. brevipes.

(pronounced GAS-oh-SAWR-us) Gasosaurus (meaning: "gas {company} lizard") was a theropod dinosaur from the mid Jurassic Period, about 175-163 million years ago. This bipedal meat-eater was about 12 feet (3.5 m) long and may have weighed roughly 330 pounds (150 kg). It had short arms, large, powerful legs, a stiff, pointed tail and large jaws with sharp teeth. An incomplete fossils was found in the Dashanpu quarry in Sichuan, in central China. It was named by paleontologists Dong and Tang in 1985 for the natural gas facility whose construction uncovered this dinosaur. The type species is G. constructus.

(pronounced gas-pa-REEN-ah-SAWR-ah) Gasparinisaura (meaning: "Zulma Gasparini's lizard" - it was named to honor the Argentine paleontologist Dr. Zulma B. Gasparini, who studied Mesozoic reptiles from Patagonia) was a plant-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous Period, roughly 90 to 83 million years ago. This iguanodontid dinosaur was 31 inches (80 cm) long (the only-known specimen is probably a juvenile. A partial skeleton of this small ornithopod was found in Patagonia, Argentina. The type species is G. cincosaltensis. It was named by paleontologists R. Coria and Salgado in 1996.

(pronounced gas-TONE-ee-ah) Gastonia was a heavily armored plant-eating dinosaur from the early Cretaceous Period. This tank-like ankylosaurid (Polacanthinae) had no tail club, was 13 to 16 ft (4 to 5 m) long, and weighed about one ton. Four to five fossils were found in Grand County, Utah, USA. The type species is G. burgei. It was named by paleontologist J. Kirkland in 1998 to honor Robert Gaston, who contributed to the find.

(pronounced gas-TRAY-lee-ah) Gastralia (also called gastric ribs, abdominal ribs, or belly ribs) are hanging ribs in the belly area. These thin, fragile ribs were not attached to the backbone (like other ribs are) - they were attached to the skin in the belly area. Gastralia help protect and support the internal organs (like the lungs) in the middle area of the body. Many dinosaurs (like Tyrannosaurus rex, Oviraptor, Gallimimus, and Diplodocus), plesiosaurs, and primitive birds (like Archaeopteryx) had gastralia. Some modern-day reptiles, like crocodiles, some lizards, and the tuatara, have gastralia.

(pronounced GAS-troh-pod) Gastropods are a class of mollusks that have a sucker-like foot. These soft-bodied invertebrates include the common garden snail, the sea snail, and the slug.

These are stones that are contained in the stomach of large herbivores such as the sauropods. They function in the mechanical breakdown of seeds and other tough plant material.

Jacques A. Gauthier is a US paleontologist and Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. He has worked extensively on the classification of dinosaurs, birds, and all saurians (including lizards, crocodylians, and rhynchocephalians). In 1986, J. A. Gauthier looked at over 100 characteristics of birds and dinosaurs and showed that birds belonged to the clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs.

Genera is the plural of genus.

Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual organism.(Compare with phenotype.)

(pronounced GEE-nus) In classification, a genus is a group of related or similar organisms. A genus contains one or more species. A group of similar genera (the plural of genus) forms a family. In the scientific name of an organism, the first name is its genus (for example, people are Homo sapiens - our genus is Homo).

The history of the Earth is described in geological time, which is measured in millions of years and billions of years. The divisions used are: eon, era, period, and epoch.

Geologic time is divided into divisions based on some distinguishing feature of that time (like an Ice Age). The divisions used are: eon, era, period, epoch, and age.

Geology is the study of the Earth's structure, including rocks.

A geologist is a scientist who studies geology.

(pronounced GEE-oh-SAWR-us) Geosaurus (meaning: "rock lizard") was an early, aquatic crocodylian about 10 ft (3 m) long. This streamlined fish-eater had a long, pointed jaw with sharp teeth, four fleshy flippers (the rear flippers were considerably longer than the front flippers), and a long tail with a tail fin. Geosaurus was NOT a dinosaur, but was a reptile that lived side-by-side with ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs in the seas during the late Jurassic Period until the early Cretaceous Period. Geosaurus fossils have been found in Europe (an especially nice specimen was found in southern Germany) and South Africa. Classification: Subclass Archosaur, Order Crocodylia, Suborder Thalattosuchia, Family Metriorhynchia, Genus Geosaurus. They type species is G. gracilis. Geosaurus was named by F. Cuvier in 1842.

(pronounced JER-an-oh-SAWR-us) Geranosaurus (meaning: "crane lizard") was a small, fast heterodontosaurid ornithischian dinosaur from the early Jurassic Period, about 208-194 million years ago. This lightly-built plant-eater had fangs and a beak. It is known from an incomplete jaw found in South Africa. The type species is G. atavus; Geranosaurus was named by Broom in 1911. This is a dubious genus.

Gerrothorax was a larval-like amphibian that lived during the late Triassic Period. This aquatic animal was about 3 ft (1 m) long. It looked like a large tadpole with a flattened body, a short, wide head, two small, close-set eyes, small, webbed, hind limbs, and a small tail. It had 3 pairs of gills throughout its life, so it could live in the water even as an adult. This carnivore (meat-eater) lived in streams and lakes. Fossils have been found in Sweden. Gerrothorax was not a dinosaur. Classification: Subclass Labyrinthodontia, Order Temnospondyli, Genus Gerrothorax